Dental ankylosis is a cellular change in the periodontal ligament that results in continuity or fusion between the alveolar bone and cementum, making it impossible for a tooth to erupt completely. It is identified clinically by the failure of a tooth to erupt through the oral epithelium, by incomplete eruption, or by a lack of vertical movement compared with the adjacent teeth and the alveolar bone. Although ankylosis is more common in the primary dentition, it may also affect the permanent teeth, typically the molars. Bone defects are often associated, especially when ankylosis occurs during active vertical growth of the maxilla.
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