JCO Journal of Clinical Orthodontics
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Self-Ligation in the Year 2000

VOLUME 34 : NUMBER 02 : PAGES (74-81) 2000


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The first self-ligating bracket, the Russell attachment, was developed by a New York orthodontic pioneer, Dr. Jacob Stolzenberg, in the early 1930s. This bracket had a flat-head screw seated snugly in a circular, threaded open­ing in the face of the bracket (). For the orthodontist, archwire changes were quick and simple. The horizontal screw could be loosened or tightened with a small watchrepair screw­driver to obtain the desired tooth movement. Loosening allo...

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